Stratigraphic Layers!

The Navcam image shown on the left was taken from “Roubion” looking toward “Mure,” where strata were seen in the distance, particularly in the lower section of the rocks just right of center. The white square indicates the field of view of the image on the right, a zoomed-in Mastcam-Z image of the “Mure” strata, the first layered rocks to be visited by Perseverance.  Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU. Left Image | Right Image

Let me introduce myself and tell you my impressions of the mission so far: I lead the SuperCam remote sensing instrument on Perseverance’s mast. Early this year I had a hard time tearing myself away from my previous Mars mission to focus on this one. I had high hopes for exploring the river delta features, but I was not sure that this early part of the mission would be earthshaking. From our current vantage point, I can now say that the mission has been totally exciting. The chemistry and mineralogy are very different from other landing sites. In contrast to my previous exploration, the mineral grains here are large, which makes it easier to understand the make-up of these rocks. However, the rock surfaces are heavily weathered, cloaking the rocks in a veil of mystery. That veil was lifted when we got our first glimpse of the abraded (“Guillaumes”) and then drilled (“Roubion”) targets the first week of August. And, WOW, what a sight! Our team chat lines went crazy, with something over a thousand posts over the weekend. But, true to its nature, Mars never yields its secrets easily, and our first sample tube ended up being an atmospheric sample (no rock).

While scratching our heads over this new challenge, on Sol 168, Perseverance drove to a new location, “Mure,” named for a village in southeastern France. Voila! There in front of Percy lay the first clear strata (layered rocks) up close and personal. Back on Sol 116, in June, we had first spotted stratigraphic layers over half a kilometer away in an outcrop called “Artuby.” Remote images of “Mure” suggested that it also might contain layered rocks, and indeed, it does. 

Visibly layered rock outcrops most often occur in sedimentary rocks. In the range of sub-millimeter to centimeter thick, they can signal annual deposition layers. The shapes of the layers—whether they pinch out at points, whether they slope or are flat—and the size of the grains help geologists understand whether the material was deposited by wind, placid water such as in a lake, or flowing water. Lava flows can also produce layered deposits, but usually with thicker layers and other telltale features. Rock layers are very important because they reveal the sequence of events that occurred when the rocks formed. If apparent igneous rocks overlie apparent sedimentary layers, we might surmise that a volcanic event happened after the deposition of rocks in a watery or wind environment. Perseverance is in a lake basin where one would normally expect sedimentary rocks. We know that fact from the elevation contours and the river delta deposits in the distance. But the floor of Jezero was mapped from orbit with apparent igneous mineral compositions. So we’re trying to piece together the history.

Perseverance has now driven several hundred meters further, scouting out “Artuby” ridge, which contains a number of outcrops showing different styles of layering. This reconnaissance is useful, as the rover is likely to eventually come back this way after checking out some more terrain up ahead and carrying out another sampling campaign.

About This Blog

These blog updates are provided by self-selected Mars 2020 mission team members who love to share what Perseverance is doing with the public.

Dates of planned rover activities described in these blogs are subject to change due to a variety of factors related to the Martian environment, communication relays and rover status.

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  • Mariah Baker
    Planetary Scientist, Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum
    Washington, DC
  • Matthew Brand
    SuperCam/ChemCam Engineer, Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos Alamos National Laboratory
  • Sawyer Brooks
    Docking Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Adrian Brown
    Deputy Program Scientist, NASA HQ
    Washington, DC
  • Denise Buckner
    Student Collaborator, University of Florida
    Gainesville, FL
  • Fred Calef III
    Mapping Specialist, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Stephanie Connell
    SuperCam, PhD Student, Purdue University
    West Lafayette, IN
  • Alyssa Deardorff
    Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Kenneth Farley
    Project Scientist, Caltech
    Pasadena, CA
  • Phylindia Gant
    Mars 2020 Student Collaborator, University of Florida
    Gainesville, FL
  • Brad Garczynski
    Student Collaborator, Purdue University
    West Lafayette, IN
  • Erin Gibbons
    Student Collaborator, McGill University
    Montreal, Canada
  • Michael Hecht
    Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) Principal Investigator, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Westford, MA
  • Louise Jandura
    Chief Engineer for Sampling & Caching, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Elisha Jhoti
    Ph.D. Student, University of California, Los Angeles
    Los Angeles, CA
  • Bavani Kathir
    Student Collaborator on Mastcam-Z, Western Washington University
  • Lydia Kivrak
    Student Collaborator, University of Florida
    Gainesville, FL
  • Athanasios Klidaras
    Ph.D. Student, Purdue University
  • Rachel Kronyak
    Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Steven Lee
    Perseverance Deputy Project Manager, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • An Li
    Student Collaborator on PIXL, University of Washington
  • Justin Maki
    Imaging Scientist and Mastcam-Z Deputy Principal Investigator, NASA/JPL
  • Forrest Meyen
    MOXIE Science Team Member, Lunar Outpost
  • Sarah Milkovich
    Assistant Science Manager, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Eleanor Moreland
    Ph.D. Student, Rice University
    Houston, Texas
  • Asier Munguira
    Ph.D. Student, University of the Basque Country
  • Matt Muszynski
    Vehicle Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Claire Newman
    Atmospheric Scientist, Aeolis Research
    Altadena, CA
  • Avi Okon
    Sampling Operations Deputy Lead, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Pegah Pashai
    Vehicle Systems Engineer Lead, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • David Pedersen
    Co-Investigator, PIXL Instrument, Technical University of Denmark (DTU)
    Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Eleni Ravanis
    Student Collaborator, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
    Honolulu, HI
  • Thirupathi Srinivasan
    Robotic Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
  • Kathryn Stack
    Deputy Project Scientist, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Vivian Sun
    Science Operations Systems Engineer, Staff Scientist, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Iona (Brockie) Tirona
    Sampling Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Jennifer Trosper
    Project Manager, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Vandi Verma
    Chief Engineer for Robotic Operations, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Rick Welch
    Deputy Project Manager, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Roger Wiens
    Principal Investigator, SuperCam / Co-Investigator, SHERLOC instrument, Purdue University
    West Lafayette, IN

Tools on the Perseverance Rover+

The Perseverance rover has tools to study the history of its landing site, seek signs of ancient life, collect rock and soil samples, and help prepare for human exploration of Mars. The rover carries:


Where is the Rover?

Image of a rover pin-point at Perseverance's location on Mars, Jezero Crater

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