MOXIE Celebrates 2 Years on Mars: Discoveries and Work Left To Do
Mars Rover With MOXIE: MOXIE is fitted into the NASA Perseverance Rover. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Download image ›

MOXIE, the Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment, is a Perseverance Rover payload on Mars. MOXIE uses a scroll pump to capture the thin, carbon-dioxide dominate air of Mars and flows it into a Solid Oxide Electrolysis (SOXE) stack. The SOXE performs an electrochemical process that strips oxygen atoms off the carbon dioxide. This oxygen is a valuable resource for rocket propellant oxidizer and life support systems.

On April 20, 2021, MOXIE created oxygen on Mars for the first time. This April, we are celebrating two fantastic years on Mars and the advances MOXIE has made for the field of space resources. During this time, MOXIE has operated throughout the seasons, at multiple locations, and at each time of day. MOXIE has conducted 13 oxygen production runs on Mars and has generated over 100 grams of O2 over 1,000 minutes of operation. MOXIE exceeded expectations in nearly every metric, proving that NASA can confidently lean on MOXIE’s technology for the creation of oxygen depots on Mars.

Here are some highlights and what we have discovered:

MOXIE’s first run (FM-OC9) was conducted on April 20, 2021, and was the first manmade oxygen production on Mars. This test demonstrated that MOXIE is a feasible technology for Mars and validated that in-situ resource utilization is possible.

On August 18, 2021, a test (FM-OC13) was conducted to optimized oxygen production purity by varying flow (and pressure as a result) across the SOXE cells. A detailed flow sweep during the warm Martian day was also conducted during MOXIE’s most recent test on February 18, 2023. High purity oxygen production showed us that MOXIE can meet the quality needs for future Mars mission.

Between October 2, 2021 and January 11, 2022 three MOXIE runs tested MOXIE’s ability to operate during the night and day during the low-density period on Mars. This data was key in demonstrating that MOXIE could operate continuously on Mars in extreme conditions, a feat needed for any human rated system.

On Nov 28, 2022, MOXIE set a record oxygen production rate of 10.56 grams per hour. This record was set by controlling the voltage across the SOXE instead of current. This technology was first demonstrated in the two previous runs and was developed to improved SOXE cell safety when running at high production rates.

MOXIE has been incredibly successful thus far, but there is still a lot of work left to do. The next steps for MOXIE include testing more advanced control schemes and perhaps even testing MOXIE’s ability to run during a Martian dust storm! If you are interested in digging through the MOXIE data, MOXIE published the 6th release of data to the Planetary Data System on March 24. This release includes all MOXIE data from Sols 4 to 631 on Mars. Check out the public link to the data here: Moxie Mars Oxygen ISRU Experiment.

About This Blog

These blog updates are provided by self-selected Mars 2020 mission team members who love to share what Perseverance is doing with the public.

Dates of planned rover activities described in these blogs are subject to change due to a variety of factors related to the Martian environment, communication relays and rover status.

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  • Mariah Baker
    Planetary Scientist, Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum
    Washington, DC
  • Matthew Brand
    SuperCam/ChemCam Engineer, Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos Alamos National Laboratory
  • Sawyer Brooks
    Docking Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Adrian Brown
    Deputy Program Scientist, NASA HQ
    Washington, DC
  • Denise Buckner
    Student Collaborator, University of Florida
    Gainesville, FL
  • Fred Calef III
    Mapping Specialist, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Stephanie Connell
    SuperCam, PhD Student, Purdue University
    West Lafayette, IN
  • Alyssa Deardorff
    Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Kenneth Farley
    Project Scientist, Caltech
    Pasadena, CA
  • Phylindia Gant
    Mars 2020 Student Collaborator, University of Florida
    Gainesville, FL
  • Brad Garczynski
    Student Collaborator, Purdue University
    West Lafayette, IN
  • Erin Gibbons
    Student Collaborator, McGill University
    Montreal, Canada
  • Michael Hecht
    Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) Principal Investigator, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Westford, MA
  • Louise Jandura
    Chief Engineer for Sampling & Caching, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Elisha Jhoti
    Ph.D. Student, University of California, Los Angeles
    Los Angeles, CA
  • Bavani Kathir
    Student Collaborator on Mastcam-Z, Western Washington University
  • Lydia Kivrak
    Student Collaborator, University of Florida
    Gainesville, FL
  • Rachel Kronyak
    Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Steven Lee
    Perseverance Deputy Project Manager, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • An Li
    Student Collaborator on PIXL, University of Washington
  • Justin Maki
    Imaging Scientist and Mastcam-Z Deputy Principal Investigator, NASA/JPL
  • Forrest Meyen
    MOXIE Science Team Member, Lunar Outpost
  • Sarah Milkovich
    Assistant Science Manager, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Eleanor Moreland
    Ph.D. Student, Rice University
    Houston, Texas
  • Matt Muszynski
    Vehicle Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Claire Newman
    Atmospheric Scientist, Aeolis Research
    Altadena, CA
  • Avi Okon
    Sampling Operations Deputy Lead, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Pegah Pashai
    Vehicle Systems Engineer Lead, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • David Pedersen
    Co-Investigator, PIXL Instrument, Technical University of Denmark (DTU)
    Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Eleni Ravanis
    Student Collaborator, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
    Honolulu, HI
  • Thirupathi Srinivasan
    Robotic Systems Engineer, NASA/JPL
  • Kathryn Stack
    Deputy Project Scientist, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Vivian Sun
    Science Operations Systems Engineer, Staff Scientist, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Iona (Brockie) Tirona
    Sampling Engineer, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Jennifer Trosper
    Project Manager, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Vandi Verma
    Chief Engineer for Robotic Operations, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Rick Welch
    Deputy Project Manager, NASA/JPL
    Pasadena, CA
  • Roger Wiens
    Principal Investigator, SuperCam / Co-Investigator, SHERLOC instrument, Purdue University
    West Lafayette, IN

Tools on the Perseverance Rover+

The Perseverance rover has tools to study the history of its landing site, seek signs of ancient life, collect rock and soil samples, and help prepare for human exploration of Mars. The rover carries:


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Image of a rover pin-point at Perseverance's location on Mars, Jezero Crater

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