Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Follow this link to skip to the main content
Images
Press Release Images
Spirit
Opportunity
All Raw Images
Spirit
Opportunity
Panoramas
Spirit
Opportunity
3-D Images
Spirit
Opportunity
Spacecraft
Mars Artwork
Landing Sites
Press Release Images: Spirit
01-Apr-2004
 
'Mazatzal' Before the Grind
'Mazatzal' Before the Grind

This approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock dubbed "Mazatzal" before the rover drilled into it with its rock abrasion tool. On sol 82, Spirit ground into a circular patch of the rock called "New York," then repeated this operation on sol 85 to complete the hole. Several observations were made during this grinding process with the rover's suite of scientific instruments. Preliminary results suggest that fluid may have been present during Mazatzal's formation. Images from the panoramic camera's blue, green and red filters (480, 530 and 600-nanometer filters) were combined to make this picture.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell
Browse Image (53 kB) | Large (459 kB)
Step 1: Choose a Target
Step 1: Choose a Target

This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera during the rover's grinding of the rock dubbed "Mazatzal" with its rock abrasion tool. The picture shows the untouched rock on sol 78, which is covered in a light-toned coating and red dust particles. This approximate true-color image was created using the panoramic camera's red, green and blue filters.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell
Browse Image (36 kB) | Large (870 kB)
Step 2: Clean the Areas
Step 2: Clean the Areas

This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera during the rover's grinding of the rock dubbed "Mazatzal" with its rock abrasion tool. The picture shows the rock after two targets dubbed "New York" (left) and "Illinois" were brushed on sol 81. The exposed, dark surface is a second coating beneath a top white veneer. This approximate true-color image was created using the panoramic camera's red, green and blue filters.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell
Browse Image (38 kB) | Large (829 kB)
Step 3: Grind the Rock
Step 3: Grind the Rock

This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera during the rover's grinding of the rock dubbed "Mazatzal" with its rock abrasion tool. The picture shows the rock after the rover drilled 3.8 millimeters (.15 inches) into the target dubbed "New York" on Sol 82. The dark grey coating seen after brushing remains on the right side of the hole, while the left side is the underlying basaltic rock. This approximate true-color image was created using the panoramic camera's red, green and blue filters.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell
Browse Image (38 kB) | Large (842 kB)
 
Browse Image (63 kB) | Large (358 kB)
Bounce Rock Spectra
Bounce Rock Spectra

This is a plot of panoramic camera spectra extracted from three different regions on the rock dubbed "Bounce." The yellow spectrum is from the yellow box in the image on the left, from the dusty top part of the rock. The spectrum is dominated by the signature of oxidized "ferric" iron (Fe3+) like that seen in the classic Martian dust. The red spectrum is from the darker Meridiani Planum soils that were disturbed by the airbag when it bounced near the rock. That spectrum is also dominated by ferric iron, though the reflectivity is lower. Scientists speculate that this may be because the grains are coarser in these soils compared to the dust. The green spectrum, which is from the right side of the rock, shows a strong drop in the infrared reflectance that is unlike any other rock yet seen at Meridiani Planum or Gusev Crater. This spectral signature is typical of un-oxidized "ferrous" iron (Fe2+) in the rock, perhaps related to the presence of volcanic minerals like olivine or pyroxene. The possibility that this may be a basaltic rock that is distinctly different from the rocks seen in the Eagle Crater outcrop is being intensively explored using the rover's other instruments.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell
Browse Image (32 kB) | Large (287 kB)
Outer Appearances Can Be Deceiving
Outer Appearances Can Be Deceiving

This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed "Mazatzal" after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer over the last few sols, show that the amount of chlorine and sulfur tri-oxide in Mazatzal first increased after brushing, then diminished after grinding. The interior of rock appears to have the same chemical make-up as other volcanic or basalt rocks studied in the Gusev Crater area ("Adirondack" and "Humphrey"). Its outer coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different constitution. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.

The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed "New York" on Mazatzal.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/Max Planck Institute
Browse Image (26 kB) | Large (103 kB)
'Mazatzal's' Many Coats
'Mazatzal's' Many Coats

This close-up image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's microscopic imager shows a section of the hole drilled into the rock dubbed "Mazatzal" after the hole was ground for a second time. The first drilling by the rover's rock abrasion tool left an incomplete hole, so a second one was performed. The blue arrow points to leftover portions of the dark rind that coats Mazatzal and the scrape marks left by the rock abrasion tool. The yellow arrow highlights the bright edges surrounding the leftover rind. The crack in the rock may have once contained fluids out of which minerals precipitated along its walls (red arrows). Mazatzal is a highly coated rock, containing at least four "cake layers": a top coat of dust, a pinking coating, a dark rind and its true interior. The observed area is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. This image was taken on sol 85.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/USGS/Cornell
Browse Image | Medium Image (140 kB) | Large (491 kB)
'Mazatzal' Vs. 'Humphrey'
'Mazatzal' Vs. 'Humphrey'

These graphs show the infrared light signatures, or spectra, of the rock dubbed "Mazatzal" before and after it was brushed clean with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The comparison reveals that the surface coating of Mazatzal is of a different mineralogical make-up than its interior. Mazatzal is also compared to the rock dubbed "Humphrey," which appears to differ mineralogically.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/ASU
Browse Image | Medium Image (171 kB) | Large (993 kB)
What's on the Inside Counts
What's on the Inside Counts

This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed "Mazatzal" after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, show that Mazatzal's interior possesses approximately the same quantities of magnesium oxide and sulfur tri-oxide as other basalt rocks in the Gusev Crater area ("Adirondack and "Humphrey"). It's exterior coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different chemical composition than the previously studied rocks. Concentrations of magnesium oxide were observed to increase first with brushing, then grinding. Also represented on the graph is soil found near Mazatzal, which appears to have a different make-up from the rock itself. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.

The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed "New York" on Mazatzal.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/Max Planck Institute
Browse Image (27 kB) | Large (104 kB)
'Mazatzal's' Sparkly Self
'Mazatzal's' Sparkly Self

This enhanced-color image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 79 shows the rock dubbed "Mazatzal" after a portion of its surface was brushed clean by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The reddish material on the right side of the image is the original dust coating. The darker, grayer surface on the left side was exposed after brushing. The crack in the rock may have once contained fluids from which minerals precipitated along its walls. The color in this image was created by combining pictures taken with the microscopic imager's orange-tinted dust cover in both its open and closed positions.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/USGS/Cornell
Browse Image (121 kB) | Large (1.8 MB)
After the First Grind
After the First Grind

This mosaic of four images from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Microscopic Imager shows a target called "New York" on the surface of "Mazatzal." The image was acquired on sol 82 of the rover's mission after the rover ground into the left half of the target. The right side of the target has been brushed but not drilled. Later, on sol 85, the rover ground the right side to complete the hole. Each image making up this mosaic is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches across).

Image credit: NASA/JPL/USGS/Cornell
Browse Image | Medium Image (245 kB) | Large (906 kB)
After the Final Grind
After the Final Grind

This mosaic of four images from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's microscopic imager shows a target called "New York" on the surface of "Mazatzal." The image was acquired on sol 85 after the rover drilled into New York a second time with its rock abrasion tool. Remnants of the dark grey coating that covers Mazatzal's interior can be seen at the right side of the hole. The crack in the rock may have once contained fluids out of which minerals precipitated. Each image making up this mosaic is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/USGS/Cornell
Browse Image | Medium Image (250 kB) | Large (925 kB)
Bromine and Chlorine Go Separate Ways

This graph shows the relative concentrations of bromine and chlorine at various locations on Earth and Mars. Typically, bromine and chlorine stick together in a fixed ratio, as in martian meteorites and Earth seawater. But sometimes the elements split apart and their relative quantities diverge. This separation is usually caused by evaporation processes, as in the Dead Sea on Earth. On Mars, at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater, this split has been observed to an even greater degree than seen on Earth. This puzzling result is currently being further explored by Mars Exploration Rover scientists. Data for the Mars locations were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/Max Planck Institute
Browse Image (33 kB) | Large (111 kB)
Daisy in Full Bloom on "Mazatzal"

This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit panoramic camera shows a daisy pattern created by the rover's rock abrasion tool on the surface of "Mazatzal." The pattern was made as the rover brushed dust off enough area on the rock to match the field of view of the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer instrument.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell
Browse Image (36 kB) | Large (554 kB)

JPL Image Use Policy

USA.gov
PRIVACY   I   IMAGE POLICY   I   FAQ   I   SITEMAP   I   CREDITS