To contribute to the four science goals, Mars Odyssey has the following science objectives:
Globally map the elemental composition of the surface
Determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface
Acquire high spatial and spectral resolution images of the surface mineralogy
Provide information on the morphology of the Martian surface
Characterize the Martian near-space radiation environment as related to radiation-induced risk to human explorers
Six instruments on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey are helping to achieve these objectives:
A camera that images Mars in the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum in order to determine the distribution of minerals on the surface of Mars.
A spectrometer that uses the gamma-ray part of the spectrum to look for the presence of 20 elements from the periodic table (e.g., carbon, silicon, iron, magnesium, etc.).
An experiment that measured the radiation environment of Mars using an energetic particle spectrometer.