Sounds of the Mars Helicopter's whirring rotors add another new dimension to the historic project. READ MORE
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|Main Job||A technology demonstration to test the first powered flight on Mars. The helicopter rode to Mars attached to the belly of the Perseverance rover.|
|Launch||July 30, 2020, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida|
|Landed||Feb. 18, 2021, Jezero Crater, Mars|
|Length of Mission||Technology demonstration complete; transitioning to new operations demo phase|
|Fact Sheet | Press Kit|
Taking Flight on Another World
The Mars Helicopter, Ingenuity, is a technology demonstration to test powered, controlled flight on another world for the first time. It hitched a ride to Mars on the Perseverance rover. Once the rover reached a suitable "airfield" location, it released Ingenuity to the surface so it could perform a series of test flights over a 30-Martian-day experimental window.
The helicopter completed its technology demonstration after three successful flights. For the first flight on April 19, 2021, Ingenuity took off, climbed to about 10 feet (3 meters) above the ground, hovered in the air briefly, completed a turn, and then landed. It was a major milestone: the very first powered, controlled flight in the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars, and, in fact, the first such flight in any world beyond Earth. After that, the helicopter successfully performed additional experimental flights of incrementally farther distance and greater altitude.
With its tech demo complete, Ingenuity transitions to a new operations demonstration phase to explore how future rovers and aerial explorers can work together.
ARCHIVED RECORDINGS ›
Meet the Martians
Meet some of the team members behind the Ingenuity helicopter
- Survive launch, cruise to Mars, and landing on the Red Planet.
- Unlock and unfold from its stowed position underneath the Perseverance rover belly pan.
- Deploy safely to the Martian surface.
- Confirm communications with the rover and flight operators on Earth.
- Keep warm autonomously through the intensely cold Martian night (as low as minus 130 degrees Fahrenheit, or minus 90 degrees Celsius).
- Charge autonomously using its solar panel.
- Confirm the energy and power model over multiple Martian days (monitoring daily power consumption, solar energy, and battery levels).
- Unlock rotor blades.
- Spin up rotor blades for the first time on Mars (to a speed below what would be needed for flight) while still on the surface.
- Spin up rotor blades full-speed for the first time on Mars (to the planned flight speed of ~2400 RPM) while still on the surface.
- Lift off for the first time in the thin Martian atmosphere.
- Fly autonomously.
- Land successfully.
5 Things to Know
First test of powered flight on another planet.
Built to be light and strong enough to stow away under the rover while on the way to Mars, and survive the harsh Martian environment after arriving on the surface. The helicopter weighs less than 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms).
Powerful enough to lift off in the thin Mars atmosphere. The atmosphere of Mars is very thin: less than 1% the density of Earth's.
The helicopter was designed to fly for up to 90 seconds, to distances of almost 980 feet (300 meters) at a time and about 10 to 15 feet from the ground. That's no small feat compared to the first 12-second flight of the Wright Brothers' airplane.
The helicopter flies on its own, without human control. It must take off, fly, and land, with minimal commands from Earth sent in advance.
Anatomy of the Mars Helicopter
'Hover' or 'click' on the orange dots to learn about the parts on the Mars Helicopter.
Solar PanelA solar panel helps keep the battery charged. x
Avionics & BodyIts avionics — or "brains" — help the helicopter function and navigate. The body has insulation and heaters to keep sensitive electronics warm and survive cold Martian nights. x
Sensors & CamerasSensors collect data on how fast the helicopter is traveling and in which direction. Cameras help the helicopter see. x
BladesMade of carbon fiber foam core provide lift in the thin Mars atmosphere. x
BatteriesBatteries help power the helicopter. x
LegsUltra-light legs made of carbon fiber tubes help it land after flight. x
|Weight||4 pounds on Earth; 1.5 pounds on Mars|
|Width||Total length of rotors: ~4 feet (~1.2 meters) tip to tip|
|Power||Solar panel charges Lithium-ion batteries, providing enough energy for one 90-second flight per Martian day (~350 Watts of average power during flight)|
|Blade span||Just under 4 feet (1.2 meters)|
|Flight range||Up to 980 feet (300 meters)|
|Flight altitude||Up to 15 feet (5 meters)|
|Flight environment||Thin atmosphere, less than 1% as dense as Earth's|
How the Helicopter is Released
Ingenuity hitched a ride on the Perseverance rover's belly, covered by a shield to protect it during the descent and landing. At a suitable spot on Mars, the shield covering beneath the rover dropped. Then, once at the selected flight zone, the team released the helicopter in several steps to get it safely onto the surface.